Sleep difficulties are a common problem for millions of adults. Even if you can get to sleep, you might have trouble staying asleep. Does this sound familiar? You drift off to dreamland, but find yourself wide awake at 3 a.m., or maybe you wake up every few hours throughout the night. sleep is supposed to leave you feeling refreshed and ready to start your day. But if your sleep is , you’re likely to feel and sleepy the next day. So what gives? There are several factors that may with getting your zzz’s including the following:
数百万成年人受到睡眠问题的困扰。即使你能够睡着,往往也可能睡不沉。听起来很耳熟?你睡着了,结果凌晨三点又醒了,或者你每隔几个小时就会醒一次。充足的睡眠理应让你软然一新,并使你为新的一天做好准备。但如果你的睡眠质量不高,第二天你就会感到疲劳和昏昏欲睡。这到底是什么造成的呢?下面列出了几点会影响你正常睡眠的原因:

1. Too much caffeine:
摄入了过多的咖啡因:

You probably already know is a and can affect your ability to fall asleep. But it can also lead to poor quality sleep including waking up in the middle of the night. Caffeine has a three to five-hour half-life, which means it takes your body that many hours to get rid of half the caffeine you consumed. The bottom line is you may feel the effects of caffeine several hours after you consume it. Keep in mind, energy drinks, cola, chocolate and certain teas also caffeine. Your best bet is to avoid caffeine about six hours before bed.
你可能已经知道咖啡因是一种刺激物且能防止你打瞌睡。但是它同样会造成睡眠质量不佳,会让你睡到半夜就清醒。咖啡因的半衰期通常有3-5个小时,这意味着如果你摄入了咖啡因就需要这么长的时间来排出其中的一般。结果是,摄入咖啡的几个小时后你仍能感受到咖啡因的效力。要记住功,能性饮料、可乐、巧克力、还有特定的茶叶都含有咖啡因,睡前大约六小时就最好不要碰还有含有咖啡因的食物。

2. Stress:
压力:

Stress and lack of sleep seem to go hand in hand. If you’re stressed, it can be hard to sleep well and may lead to middle of the night . When you don’t get enough sleep, that can also lead to more stress and it becomes a cycle. According to the American Psychological Association, adults who get less than eight hours of sleep each night report higher levels of stress than those who sleep longer. Although it can be easier said than done, it’s important to and before bed.
压力和缺觉从来都是一起来的。如果你感到压力大,那么晚上就睡不好,会半夜失眠。你睡不好,又会觉得压力很大,然后就造成恶性循环。按照美国心理学协会的研究表明,每天谁不满8个小时的成人比每天能睡的满8个小时或是更长的成人,感觉到更大的压力。尽管说的比做的容易,但是睡前的放松会让你有好的睡眠。

3. Sleep environment:
睡觉的环境:

Your sleep environment can contribute to poor sleep. For example, loud noises can you from a sound sleep or light through the shades can wake you. Fortunately, there are ways to make your bedroom more sleep-friendly. Invest in a quality and comfy and consider keeping your bedroom cool, which most people find helps sleep. Make sure your curtains are heavy enough to block out sunlight and use a white noise machine or earplugs to block sounds from outside.
睡觉的环境也可能是糟糕睡眠的原因。突如其来的噪音会把你从沉睡中吵醒,或是昏暗中的出现的光线也会让你醒来。幸运的是,这里我们提供了几个营造睡眠环境的妙招。下点血本买个质量好的床垫和舒适的床上用品,保证卧室清凉,很多人都发现这样对于睡眠很管用。窗帘要够厚且保证遮光,用白噪音发生器或是耳塞来组个外来噪音。

4. An aching back:
背痛:

Back pain cansleep and leave you struggling to find a comfortable position. If you haveback pain, it’s important to treat the underlying cause. Also, your sleep position can make a big difference in your comfort level. The right position for you may depend on whether your upper or lower back ache. To take the pressure off your back, the Mayo Clinic recommends sleeping on your side with your knees slightly pulled up towards your chest with a pillow between your knees.
背痛会打断你的睡眠,你在床上辗转反侧就为找到一个舒服的姿势睡觉。如果你患有慢性背部疼痛,那么你很有必要去查出潜在原因。其次,不同疼痛程度,睡觉的姿势也大有讲究,正确的睡觉姿势取决于你是上背部疼还是下背部疼。为了减轻你背部的压力,Mayo诊所推荐侧睡姿势,且膝盖朝胸部弯曲,在膝盖间夹一个枕头的睡觉姿势。

5. Hormones:
荷尔蒙:

Your hormones play a role in several functions including sleep. When there is an or a , shifting hormones can contribute to sleep disturbances. A woman’s cycle, , and often cause hormonal changes that may affect their quality of sleep. For example, decreased can lead to hot flashes, which wake you up at 2 a.m. You can’t always control your hormones, but you can make your environment conducive for sleep, unwind before bed and stick to the same sleep schedule. If those strategies don’t help, talk with your doctor. Hormonal replacement therapy or additional treatment may be an option.
你的荷尔蒙有诸多功能,其中就包括睡觉。如果荷尔蒙分泌不平衡或是有波动,则会造成你的睡眠紊乱,妇女的经期,怀孕,停经,还有更年期通常都会造成体内荷尔蒙变化从而影响睡眠质量。比如,雌性激素分泌的降低会导致潮热,让你在半夜两点醒来。你不能控制自己的荷尔蒙,但你可以创造一个利于睡眠的环境,身体放松,并坚持规律的作息。如果以上都不管用,那就要去看医生,荷尔蒙代替治疗或者其他的附加治疗都是可供选择的。

6. Alcohol:
酒精:

If you enjoy a cocktail before bedtime, you know alcohol may help you get to sleep. But the bad news is it actually can interfere with your quality of sleep. As the alcohol and the effects wear off, it prevents deep sleep, which causes restless sleep throughout the night. Consider limiting alcohol a few hours before you hit the sack.
如果你喜欢睡前来杯鸡尾酒,你应该知道它能让你更容易入睡。但坏消息是,酒精会影响你的睡眠质量。随着酒精在体内进行新陈代谢并逐渐被消耗殆尽,它会妨碍你进入深度睡眠,这会让你一晚上都睡不安稳。要保证好的睡眠质量,那么在睡前几小时最好不要饮酒。

7. Eating too late:
吃的太晚:

A light midnight snack may be fine, but a heavy meal too close to bedtime may leave you tossing and turning during the night. Eating large portions before you turn in for the night can lead to and . If you want a snack before bed, keep it light and stay away from spicy and foods.
半夜吃点零食没事,但是睡前吃一顿大餐,那就等着翻来覆去一整夜吧。睡前吃的太多会引起消化不良和胃酸倒流。如果睡前是在想吃零食,那就少吃一点,而且不能辛辣油腻。

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