When we report someone’s words we can do it in two ways. We can use direct speech with quotation marks (“I work in a bank”), or we can use reported speech (He said he worked in a bank.)
当我们转述别人的话的时候,我们能有两种说法。我们可以用带引号的直接语气(“I work in a bank”),或者用间接引语(He said he worked in a bank.)。
In reported speech the tenses, word-order and pronouns may be different from those in the original sentence.
用间接引语的句子,其时态、单词顺序和代词可能会跟原句的不同。

Present simple and present continuous tenses
一般现在时和现在进行时

Direct speech: I travel a lot in my job.
直接语气: “I travel a lot in my job”
Reported speech:He said that he travelled a lot in his job.
间接引语: He said that he travelled a lot in his job.
The present simple tense (I travel) usually changes to the past simple (he travelled) in reported speech.
一般现在时态,在间接引语里一般变成一般过去时。
Direct speech:Be quiet. The baby’s sleeping.
直接语气: “Be quiet. The baby’s sleeping.”
Reported speech:She told me to be quiet because the baby was sleeping.
间接引语: She told me to be quiet because the baby was sleeping.
The present continuous usually changes to the past continuous.
现在进行时一般变成过去进行时。
Note
注意:
Reported speech:“I work in Italy”
间接引语: He told me that he works in Italy.
It isn’t always necessary to change the tense. If something is still true now – he still works in Italy – we can use the present simple in the reported sentence.
并不是任何情况下都要改变时态,如果某事现在还是真实的—例句中,他现在还在意大利工作的话,我们就能在用间接引语的时候也用一般现在时态即可。

Past simple and past continuous tenses
一般过去时和过去进行时态

Direct speech:“We lived in China for 5 years.”
直接语气: “We lived in China for 5 years.”
Reported speech:She told me they had lived in China for 5 years.
间接引语: She told me they had lived in China for 5 years.
The past simple tense (we lived) usually changes to the past perfect (they had lived) in reported speech.
一般过去时态在间接引语中经常变成过去完成时。
Direct speech:“I was walking down the road when I saw the accident."
直接语气: “I was walking down the road when I saw the accident.”
Reported speech:He told me he’d been walking down the road when he’d seen the accident.
间接引语: He told me he’d been walking down the road when he’d seen the accident.
The past continuous usually changes to the past perfect continuous.
过去进行时经常变成过去完成进行时。

Perfect tenses
完成时态

Direct speech:They’ve always been very kind to me.
直接语气: “They’ve always been very kind to me”.
Reported speech:She said they’d always been very kind to her.
间接引语: She said they’d always been very kind to her.
The present perfect tense (have always been) usually changes to the past perfect tense (had always been).
现在完成时经常变成过去完成时。
Direct speech: “They had already eaten when I arrived”
直接引语:“They had already eaten when I arrived”。
Reported speech: He said they’d already eaten when he’d arrived.
间接引语:He said they’d already eaten when he’d arrived.
The past perfect tense does not change in reported speech.
过去完成时态在变成间接引语的时候不用变。
You can find more information about reported speech in another section.
你在另一章节里可以找到更多关于间接引语的语法信息。