Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage:
The producers of instant coffee found their product strongly resisted in the market places despite their manifest (明显的) advantages. Furthermore, the advertising expenditure for instant coffee was far greater than that for regular coffee.
Efforts were made to find the cause of the consumers' seemingly unreasonable resistance to the product. The reason given by most people was dislike for the taste. The producers suspected that there might be deeper reasons, however. This was confirmed by one of motivation research's classic studies, one often cited in the trade. Mason Haire, of the University of California, constructed two shopping lists that were identical except for one item. There were six items common to both lists: hamburger, carrots(胡萝卜), baking powder, bread, canned peaches and potatoes, with the brands or amounts specified. The seventh item, in the fifth place on both lists, read “11b. Maxwell House coffee” on one list and “Nescafe instant coffee” on the other.
One list was given to each person in a group of fifty women, and the other list to those in another group of the same size. The women were asked to study their lists and then to describe, as far as they could, the kind of woman (“personality and character”) who would draw up that shopping list. Nearly half of those who had received the list including instant coffee described a housewife who was lazy and a poor planner.
On the other hand, only one woman in the other group described the housewife, who had included regular coffee on her list, as lazy; only six of that group suggested that she was a poor planner. Eight women felt that the instant coffee user was probably not a good wife! No one in the other group drew such a conclusion about the housewife who intended to buy regular coffee.
36.The fact that producers found resistance to their product despite the fact that they spent more advertising money on instant than regular coffee shows that ____.
A) advertising does not assure favorable sales result
B) companies spent more money on advertising than they should
C) people pay little attention to advertising
D) the more one advertises the better the sales picture
37.In this instance, the purpose of motivation research was to discover ____.
A) why people drink coffee
B) why instant coffee did not taste good
C) why regular coffee was successful
D) the real reason why people would not buy instant coffee
38.This investigation indicated that ____.
A) 50 percent of housewives are lazy
B) housewives who use instant coffee are lazy
C) many women believe that wives who use instant coffee are lazy
D) wives who use regular coffee are good planners
39.On the results of this test, the producers probably revised their advertising to show a ____.
A) lazy housewife using regular coffee
B) hardworking housewife using instant coffee
C) lazy housewife using instant coffee
D) man obviously enjoying the taste of instant coffee
40.Implied but not stated:____.
A) Despite its advantages, most people disliked instant coffee because of its taste.
B) The advertising expenditure for instant coffee was greater than that for regular coffee.
C) Very often we do not know the real reasons for doing things.
D) Taste is the principal factor in determining what we buy.
短文大意：广告宣传对促销起着十分重要的作用。但广告并不是万能的，有时它的效果并不理想，甚至起着相反的作用。作者以实际例子说明这一问题。虽然速溶咖 啡有其自身的优势，但为什么会在市场上滞销 ?其原因就出在广告宣传上。滞销只是表面现象，而深层的涵义则是因为许多买速溶咖啡的家庭妇女往往被认为是懒惰的。试验结果则表明：厂家很有可能改变其广告宣传，说明只有勤快的家庭主妇才使用速溶咖啡。这就从另一个测面告诉人们：我们对正在做的事情并不真正知道其原因。
36. 答 案A。【参考译文】厂家尽管在速溶咖啡上比普通咖啡花的广告钱要多，但他们发现此产品仍然滞销，这表明广告并不能保证有好的销售。【试题分析】本题考察学生的阅读理解能力，主要从字里行间找答案。
37. 答 案D。【参考译文】在这个例子中，研究的目的和动机是为了找出人们为什么不愿买速溶咖啡的真正原因。【试题分析】考察学生的推断和综合理解能力。
【解答要领】读完整段文章之后，读者就会发现 D)乃正确答 案，特别是第四行的那句话，清楚地说了本题的意思。
38. 答 案C。【参考译文】这次调查表明，许多妇女都认为使用速溶咖啡的妇女是懒惰的。【试题分析】此题考察学生对上下文的理解能力，需从字里行间找答案。
【解答要领】从短文中，可以看出调查报告的结果乃是许多人认为买那“速溶咖啡 (instant coffee)”的女人是懒女人。
39. 答 案B。【参考译文】关于这次试验的结果，厂家很有可能修改他们的广告内容，说明勤快的家庭主妇使用速溶咖啡。【试题分析】本题为推理判断题，需从字里行间找答 案。【详细解答】民意测验结果表明，许多买速溶咖啡的家庭妇女被认为是懒惰的。因此，厂家改变了广告宣传，并说买速溶咖啡的家庭妇女是勤劳的，使妇女敢于 买其咖啡，故应选 B)。
40. 答 案C。【参考译文】没有说出来的含义是：我们对所做的事情并不真的知道其原因。【试题分析】本题为综合判断题，需从文章的含义中找出答案。【详细解答】首先要弄明白 imply的意思是“暗示”，而state的意思是“陈述”，据此应该选 C)，意思是我们做某些事情常不知道其理由是什么。